Seven Kinds of Satire (Robinson, 1912)

1.1-4, 14-16, 32-34, 41, 55, 143-57, 198-99, 280, 505-6, 9.550-51. Fred Norris Robinson, ‘Satirists and Enchanters in Early Irish Literature’ in David Gordon Lyon and George Foot Moore, eds., Studies in the History of Religions: Presented to Crawford Howell Toy by Pupils Colleagues and Friends, (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1912), p.106. BL 4503.k.5

Extract from Fred Norris Robinson, ‘Satirists and Enchanters in Early Irish Literature’, on the ‘seven kinds of satire’.

The list below of the ‘seven kinds of satire’ identifiable in early Irish culture and practised by Irish bards is obviously instructive for a reading of Ulysses, ‘Telemachus’ above all. Joyce and/or Stephen and/or Mulligan engage in all of them:

Another legal compilation, the Heptads, designates seven kinds of satire and discusses the ‘honor-price’ appropriate to each: “There are with the Feine seven kinds of satire for which dire is estimated; a nickname which clings; recitation of a satire of insults in his absence; to satirize the face; to laugh on all sides; to sneer at his form; to magnify a blemish; satire which is written by a bard who is far away, and which is recited.”